Authors: Xu Gao, Fan Lv, Xinyuan He, Yunyu Zhao, Yi Liu, Jian Zu, Linda Henry, Jinhai Wang, Yee Hui Yeo, Fanpu Ji, Mindie H. Nguyen
Publication Year: 2023
Last Updated: January 2023
Journal: Journal of Hepatology
Keywords: Covid-19; Liver Disease
Short Abstract: Background & Aims The pandemic has resulted in an increase of deaths not directly related to COVID-19 infection. We aimed to use a national death dataset to determine the impact of the pandemic on people with liver disease in the USA, focusing on alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
Abstract: Background & Aims The pandemic has resulted in an increase of deaths not directly related to COVID-19 infection. We aimed to use a national death dataset to determine the impact of the pandemic on people with liver disease in the USA, focusing on alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods Using data from the National Vital Statistic System from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (CDC WONDER) platform and ICD-10 codes, we identified deaths associated with liver disease. We evaluated observed vs. predicted mortality for 2020–2021 based on trends from 2010–2019 with joinpoint and prediction modelling analysis. Results Among 626,090 chronic liver disease-related deaths between 2010 and 2021, Age-standardised mortality rates (ASMRs) for ALD dramatically increased between 2010–2019 and 2020–2021 (annual percentage change [APC] 3.5% to 17.6%, p <0.01), leading to a higher observed ASMR (per 100,000 persons) than predicted for 2020 (15.67 vs. 13.04) and 2021 (17.42 vs. 13.41). ASMR for NAFLD also increased during the pandemic (APC: 14.5%), whereas the rates for hepatitis B and C decreased. Notably, the ASMR rise for ALD was most pronounced in non-Hispanic Whites, Blacks, and Alaska Indians/Native Americans (APC: 11.7%, 10.8%, 18.0%, all p <0.05), with similar but less critical findings for NAFLD, whereas rates were steady for non-Hispanic Asians throughout 2010–2021 (APC: 4.9%). The ASMR rise for ALD was particularly severe for the 25–44 age group (APC: 34.6%, vs. 13.7% and 12.6% for 45–64 and ≥65, all p <0.01), which were also all higher than pre-COVID-19 rates (all p <0.01). Conclusions ASMRs for ALD and NAFLD increased at an alarming rate during the COVID-19 pandemic with the largest disparities among the young, non-Hispanic White, and Alaska Indian/Native American populations. Impact and implications The pandemic has led to an increase of deaths directly and indirectly related to SARS-CoV-2 infection. As shown in this study, age-standardised mortality rates for alcohol-associated liver disease and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease substantially increased during the COVID-19 pandemic in the USA and far exceeded expected levels predicted from past trends, especially among the young, non-Hispanic White, and Alaska Indian/Native American populations. However, much of this increase was not directly related to COVID-19. Therefore, for the ongoing pandemic as well as its recovery phase, adherence to regular monitoring and care for people with chronic liver disease should be prioritised and awareness should be raised among patients, care providers, healthcare systems, and public health policy makers.
Source: Link to Original Article.
Type of Resource: Peer-reviewed scientific article